Home Articles What is Fufu? (Everything You Need To Know)

What is Fufu? (Everything You Need To Know)

If you want to expand your palate and try something new, you must try fufu! Now, you might be asking yourself, “Wait, what is fufu?”

Fufu is a starchy, bread-like food commonly eaten in West Africa and the Caribbean. 

What is Fufu featuring Bowl Full of Fluffy Fufu

It’s typically served with a variety of mouthwatering African soups and stews. And it is a great way to be introduced to African cuisine. 

Essentially, it’s a way to transport stews and soups from the bowl into your mouth. Like bread and tomato soup! Intrigued? 

Dive into the wide world of fufu!

What is Fufu?

Fufu (foo-foo) is a yummy, dough-like African dish, often paired with soups. It is an integral part of West African and Caribbean cuisines. 

It’s made from a mix of starchy vegetables like yam or cassava root. The veggies are boiled, pounded, and mixed with water into a smooth dough. 

It’s versatile, with many regional twists. It can feature ingredients like plantains, corn, or even bacon. 

Some places, like Nigeria, use fermented cassava. All these add a unique touch to its texture.

Origins of Fufu

‘Fufu’ comes from the Twi (chwee) language, spoken in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. It means “to mash or mix,” which is how you make fufu. 

You might see it spelled differently, like ‘foofoo,’ ‘foufou,’ or ‘fufuo.’

Here’s a fun fact – fufu started as a popular Ghanaian Food. And it quickly spread to other countries in West Africa. 

But it didn’t stop there. 

When enslaved Africans were forced to come to the Americas, they brought fufu with them. Obviously, they had to use what was available, so they adapted the recipe.

And you know what? Fufu became super popular in the Caribbean. Places like Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and Puerto Rico now love fufu. 

It’s a dish that shows how food can travel and change. But still stays true to its roots. 

It’s more than just a tasty dish. It’s a piece of history shared between countries. 

3 Fufu in a Brown Bowl

What Is Fufu Made Of?

West African fufu traditionally used cassava. But over time, the recipe changed based on regional preferences.  

Now, fufu is made with all sorts of stuff! 

It could be made with: 

  • Oat flour 
  • Maize 
  • Wheat 
  • Sweet potatoes 
  • Plantains 
  • Yams 
  • Rice

These starchy foods are often boiled or pounded.

But fufu is not a solo dish. It usually comes with tasty soups, stews, meats, or fish. 

You can find different fufu all over Africa and the Caribbean. It’s made with whatever starchy veggies are easy to get in that area.  

It’s a dish adapted to the local tastes and ingredients.

What Does Fufu Taste Like?

So, what does fufu taste like? The taste can change based on what you make it with. It might be sour, or it could be bland or tart.

Traditional fufu, made with cassava, can range from mild to sour. The taste changes depending on how the cassava is prepared. 

If it’s fermented, fufu gets a sour kick. If it’s not, fufu is more neutral.

But remember, fufu is often served with a zingy African soup. These soups are packed with rich, bold, and often spicy flavors. 

So the real star of the show is the soup’s taste. Fufu goes great with African soups like Banga, Okro, or Egusi

It’s like bread and butter – they just go together!

Bunch of Fufu Balls on a ceramic bowl

Regional Variations


Known as eba, their fufu uses dried and grated cassava for a grainier texture. It’s a little tart and pairs well with various stews.

Other popular fufu are:

  • Cassava fufu (Akpu): Made with fermented cassava.
  • Pounded yam (Yam fufu): Boiled yams mashed up.
  • Plantain fufu: Features green plantains.
  • Amala: Yam powder, also called elubo, is the main ingredient.
  • Semolina: Uses durum wheat.
  • Oatmeal swallow: Blended oats make the base.
  • Tuwon shinkafa: Cooked and mashed rice forms this dish.
  • Tuwon masara: Corn flour is the main star.

West Africa: 

Pounded yam fufu is a favorite here. Made of yams cooked into a smooth texture, it’s excellent with vegetable or peanut stew.

East and Southern Africa: 

Known as ugaliposho, or nshima, this fufu is made from corn meal or millet flour. It s like porridge and is eaten with various stews and vegetables.

West Africa: 

Plantain fufu, a lighter alternative, uses blended green plantain. It pairs well with peanut soup, palm oil soup, or leafy vegetable stew.


Known as banku, this fufu uses corn and cassava dough. Enjoy banku with shito and fried fish or okra soup.

Other popular fufu are:

  • Kokonte – cassava flour.
  • Fufuo – cassava and plantain.

Northern Nigeria: 

Tuwo Shinkafa, a rice-based fufu, is a sticky, mashed rice dish. It tastes like plain rice and goes well with spicy red chicken stew.

And that’s just touching the surface! Tons of other African countries have their own unique fufu variations. 

How to Make Fufu

Preparing fufu can be done differently, depending on the starch you choose. 

Suppose you go with cassava, plantain, or yam. In that case, the traditional method involves boiling the starch and then pounding it into a dough using a mortar and pestle.

It’s definitely a labor of love!

It’s still commonly used in many African kitchens. But, we can also use food processors. 

So after boiling the starch, you can knead it into a dough using a food processor. Easy-peasy!

If you’re looking for an easier option, there’s a fufu powder you can use. Here’s how:

  1. Start by boiling some water in a pot.
  2. Add the fufu flour and stir it with a spatula until it becomes solid.
  3. Keep stirring until you get a smooth dough.
  4. Shape the dough however you like and serve it with your favorite soup.

It’s simple to make and tastes great!

African Cooked Greens Dish Served With Fufu in a Bowl

How to Eat Fufu

Enjoying fufu is all about getting hands-on! Grab a piece with your right hand, press it with your thumb to create a dent, and use it as a scoop for soup or stew. 

  1. Dip it deep into your dish. 
  2. Load it with deliciousness. 
  3. Bring it to your mouth and eat. 

Eating fufu with your hands adds to the fun! 

What to Eat with Fufu

Fufu is enjoyed with African soups and stews. These dishes are packed with flavor!

Some popular dishes include: 

  • Nkate nkwan (groundnut soup).
  • Banga soup (palm nut soup).
  • Okro soup (okra soup).
  • Peanut soup.
  • Abun abun (a vibrant green vegetable soup).
  • Egusi (made with melon seeds and leafy greens).
What is Fufu?

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author avatar
Kim - InsanelyGood
Hey there! I'm Kim. I love running, cooking, and curling up with a good book! I share recipes for people who LOVE good food, but want to keep things simple :)

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